As part of a successful agronomic strategy, adequate nutrient management of the potato crop is essential throughout the whole growth period. In this review, the importance of balanced fertilisation for potato yield formation and yield security is addressed by taking advantage of the results of field trials and existing literature. The most important roles of the macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, magnesium, calcium and sulphur in the plant and their importance for yield formation in potato are reviewed. Fertilisation practices in potato production are discussed. Due to their various functions in plant metabolism, the impact of plant nutrients on potato yield is complex. Therefore, interactions with abiotic and biotic factors, for instance interactions between two different plant nutrients in the soil and the plant, are taken into account.