Protection of the environment is one of the most important issues of politics in many countries. The food industry generates large amounts of waste, which can be further managed using biotechnological processes. The potato industry is one of the branches which generates a huge amount of waste that is burdensome for the environment. In the production process of potato starch, chips and alcohol, the following wastes are formed: potato wastewater, potato pulp, peel, distillery wastewater and pulp. These wastes can then be managed as components of microbial media in the biotechnological production of cellular biomass of yeasts, microbial polysaccharides, protein and lipids, carotenoids, enzymes and organic acids. On the one hand, this allows for the reduction of costs of production of food components through microbial synthesis, and on the other, it enables the environmental management of industrial waste. The present article discusses the most important studies concerning the biotechnological management of wastes of the potato industry.