The effects of container type on plant growth, yield and production cost of seed potatoes were investigated. Potato cultivars ‘Saebong’, ‘Geumsun’ (early-maturing) and ‘Haryeong’ (mid-maturing) were grown in four types of plant container: small (25 cm × 25 cm × 19 cm, L × W × H), medium (63 cm × 22 cm × 15 cm) and large (53 cm × 37 cm × 19 cm) plastic boxes and a styrofoam bed (100 cm × 52 cm × 31 cm). Shoot growth expressed as plant height was vigorous in the substrate culture system, especially in the styrofoam bed, whereas the roots tended to be longest in the small plastic box. ‘Haryeong’ showed the greatest shoot and tuber growth across plant container types. Tuber number (87.2–104.1 tubers m−2) and tuber weight (7.6–9 kg m−2) were greatest in the large plastic box and in the styrofoam bed. Furthermore, seed tuber (30–250 g) percentage of all tubers produced was high (93–95%), but no significant differences were observed among container types. The incidence of tuber physiological disorders was low (<5%). Considering the cost of the substrate, plant containers and stem cuttings, the production cost was lower for the medium and large plastic boxes, and for the styrofoam bed (20–39% lower), than that for the small plastic box. Therefore, the large plastic box and the styrofoam bed are suggested as ideal plant containers for the production of seed potatoes.